A comprehensive dataset of 138 surficial sediment samples retrieved from the shallow marine waters of six secondary compartments off the western coast of Victoria, Australia, is presented. Samples were collected between October 2018 and November 2020 at water depths ranging from four to 55 m using Shipek and Van Veen grabs. Sampling design targeted unconsolidated areas of the seafloor based on bathymetric and seafloor habitat data. Retrieved sediments were subsampled and subject to grain size analysis using a combination of dry sieving and laser diffraction methods, carbonate and organic matter content determination via Loss-on-Ignition, colour description using a Munsell chart, and roundness analysis using microscopic photography. This dataset, the most comprehensive surficial shallow water sedimentary record of the Otway Shelf, serves as a benchmark to understand sediment dynamics and conectivity along the coast, and can be used in environmental and engineering studies to support a range of management decisions.