Experimental microdosimetry along with the microdosimetric kinetic (MK) model can be utilized to predict the biological effects of ions. To predict the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ions and the survival fraction (SF) of human salivary gland tumour (HSGc���C5) cells, microdosimetric quantities measured by a silicon���on���insulator (SOI) MicroPlus���mushroom microdosimeter along the spread���out Bragg peak (SOBP) delivered by pencil beam scanning of4He,12C,16O, and 20 Ne ions were used. The MK model parameters of HSGc���C5 cells were obtained from the best fit of the calculated SF for the different linear energy transfer (LET) of these ions and the formerly reported in vitro SF for the same LET and ions used for calculations. For a cube���shaped target of 10 �� 10 �� 6 cm3, treatment plans for4He,12C,16O, and20Ne ions were produced with proprietary treatment planning software (TPS) aiming for 10% SF of HSGc���C5 cells over the target volume and were delivered to a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom. Afterwards, the saturation���corrected dosemean lineal energy derived based on the measured microdosimetry spectra, along with the physical dose at various depths in PMMA phantoms, was used for the estimation of the SF, RBE, and RBEweighted dose using the MK model. The predicted SF, RBE, and the RBE���weighted dose agreed with what was planned by the TPS within 3% at most depths for these ions.