This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and determinants of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among university students in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 614 students from five universities in central Bangladesh. Data were collected on demographic information, immunization history, medical and blood transfusion history through the face-to-face interview. Blood samples were collected and screened for anti-HBsAg using ELISA, HBsAg Rapid Test-cassette, and immune chromatographic test. The overall seroprevalence of HBV infection was 5.0%, and vaccination coverage was 19.2% among the participants. Students having a history of surgery (OR 11.004, 95% CI 3.211–37.707), blood transfusion (OR 5.651, 95% CI 0.965–33.068), being married (OR 4.776, 95% CI 1.508–15.127), and not being vaccinated (OR 9.825, 95% CI 1.130–85.367) were at higher risk of being infected by HBV. This study showed the endemicity of HBV infection among the Bangladeshi population. Marriage, surgical or blood transfusion history, not being vaccinated were the determinants of HBV infection within the study population. Public health initiatives for preventing HBV infection at the university levels should be envisaged.