Political leaders from around the world are demonstrating interest in adopting food policies that account for the economic, health, social and environmental dimensions of food. In the Pacific Islands, decades of experience in implementing multisectoral NCD and climate policy has indicated that operationalising food systems policies will be challenging. We aimed to identify opportunities for food systems sectors to more strongly promote nutrition and environmental sustainability in addition to economic objectives. We conducted a comparative documentary analysis of 37 food systems sector policies in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. We applied theories of agenda-setting to examine how the frames employed by different sectors, and evident in policy content, shaped policy priorities and activities. We identified a predominately economic framing of issues affecting food systems sectors. Though there were clear policy aims to produce enough food to meet population dietary requirements and to promote an environmentally resilient food supply, aims operationalised more predominately through policy content were those that increase the contribution of productive sectors to food exports and import substitution. Food systems sectors in the Pacific Islands have clear aims to promote nutritious and environmentally resilient food systems, but policy instruments could more strongly reflect these aims.