Background The field of microbiota-gut-brain research in animals has progressed, while the exact nature of gut microbiota-brain-cognition relationship in humans is not completely elucidated, likely due to small sample sizes and single neuroimaging modality utilized to delineate limited aspects of the brain. We aimed to comprehensively investigate such association in a large sample using multimodal MRI. Methods Fecal samples were collected from 157 healthy young adults and 16S sequencing was used to assess gut microbial diversity and enterotypes. Five brain imaging measures, including regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity density (FCD) from resting-state functional MRI, cerebral blood flow (CBF) from arterial spin labeling, gray matter volume (GMV) from structural MRI, and fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging, were jointly analyzed with a data-driven multivariate fusion method. Cognition was evaluated by 3-back and digit span tasks. Results We found significant associations of gut microbial diversity with ReHo, FCD, CBF, and GMV within the frontoparietal, default mode and visual networks, as well as with FA in a distributed set of juxtacortical white matter regions. In addition, there were FCD, CBF, GMV, and FA differences between Prevotella- versus Bacteroides-enterotypes in females and between Prevotella- versus Ruminococcaceae-enterotypes in males. Moreover, the identified neuroimaging fusion biomarkers could mediate the associations between microbial diversity and cognition. Conclusions Our findings not only expand existing knowledge of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, but also have potential clinical and translational implications by exposing the gut microbiota as a promising treatment and prevention target for cognitive impairment and related brain disorders.