We establish a theoretical model of the Doppler effect in absolute distance measurements using frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) and propose a novel FSI absolute distance measurement system. This system incorporates a basic FSI system and a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). The LDV results are used to correct for the Doppler effect in the absolute distance measurement signal obtained by the basic FSI system. In the measurement of a target located at 16 m, a measurement resolution of 65.5 μm is obtained, which is close to the theoretical resolution, and a standard deviation of 3.15 μm is obtained. The theoretical measurement uncertainty is 8.6 μm + 0.16 μm/m Rm (k = 2) within a distance range of 1 m to 24 m neglecting the influence of air refractive index, which has been verified with experiments.