Protein disulfide isomerase family A member 3 (PDIA3) is a multifunctional protein, and it plays a vital role in modulating various cell biological functions under physiological and pathological conditions. Our previous study on Mediterranean buffalo demonstrated that PDIA3 is a potential candidate gene associated with milk yield based on genome-wide association study analysis. However, the genetic effects of the PDIA3 gene on milk performance in dairy cattle and the corresponding mechanism have not been documented. This study aims to explore the genetic effects of PDIA3 polymorphisms on milk production traits in 362 Chinese Holstein cattle. The results showed that 4 SNPs were identiﬁed from the 5' untranslated region of the PDIA3 gene in the studied population, of which 2 SNPs (g.-1713 C>T and g.-934 G>A) were confirmed to be significantly associated with milk protein percentage, whereas g.-434 C>T was significantly associated with milk fat percentage. Notably, linkage disequilibrium analysis indicated that 3 SNPs (g.-1713 C>T, g.-934 G>A, and g.-695 A>C) formed one haplotype block, which was found to be significantly associated with milk protein percentage. The luciferase assay demonstrated that allele C of g.-434 C>T exhibited a higher promotor activity compared with allele T, suggesting that g.-434 C>T might be a potential functional mutation affecting PDIA3 expression. Furthermore, overexpression of the PDIA3 gene was found to induce higher levels of triglyceride and BODIPY fluorescence intensity. In addition, PDIA3 overexpression was also found to positively regulate the synthesis and secretion of α-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein, whereas knockdown of this gene showed the opposite effects. In summary, our findings revealed significant genetic effects of PDIA3 on milk composition traits, and the identified SNP and the haplotype block might be used as genetic markers for dairy cow selected breeding.