Water���based lubricants with different fractions of TiO2 nanoparticles ranging from 1.0 to 9.0 wt% were utilized to study the lubrication mechanisms during micro rolling tests and the tribological behaviour of nanolubricants during the micro rolling of copper foils. The results indicate that the application of TiO2 nanolubricants remarkably improves the surface quality of rolled copper foils during rolling processes. For lubricants with inadequate TiO2 nanoparticles, it is found that few TiO2 nanoparticles enter the contact regions between the rolls and foils, causing insufficient lubrication during rolling processes. Instead, for lubricants with excessive TiO2 nanoparticles, obvious agglomeration occurs at the contact regions and promotes the generation of voids on the surface of the rolled foils, thereby deteriorating the surface quality of the rolled copper foils. In addition, it is found that the surface quality of rolled foils is improved by utilizing a large reduction ratio. Overall, the fraction of 3.0 wt% TiO2 nanolubricants is optimal to improve the lubrication conditions at the contact regions, thereby improving the surface quality of the rolled copper foils.