Aqueous monovalent-ion batteries have been rapidly developed recently as promising energy storage devices in large-scale energy storage systems owing to their fast charging capability and high power densities. In recent years, Prussian blue analogues, polyanion-type compounds, and layered oxides have been widely developed as cathodes for aqueous monovalent-ion batteries because of their low cost and high theoretical capacity. Furthermore, many design strategies have been proposed to expand their electrochemical stability window by reducing the amount of free water molecules and introducing an electrolyte addictive. This review highlights the advantages and drawbacks of cathode and anode materials, and summarizes the correlations between the various strategies and the electrochemical performance in terms of structural engineering, morphology control, elemental compositions, and interfacial design. Finally, this review can offer rational principles and potential future directions in the design of aqueous monovalent-ion batteries.