O. Bina identified lines of argument for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), namely, strategy, procedure, and purpose. B. F. Noble developed a list of defining characteristics that distinguish the tactical advanced project/proposal focus of Environmental Impact Assessment from the broader strategic policy focus of SEA. SEA has developed to address the limitations of project-based and often time-critical, pressured, project assessments and decision making. The need to address management of new sectoral uses of marine space, and increasing recognition of the vulnerability of marine ecosystems presented challenges for the established sectoral management systems. The European Commission produced a communication paper ‘Blue Growth-opportunities for marine and maritime sustainable growth’ that summarised the outlook and potential for gross value and employment generation after two decades of policy, research and management. The concept of ecosystem-based management flowed from the Rio Summit of 1992 and projects have been undertaken in many jurisdictions, many with support from the United Nations Environment Programme and Global Environmental Facility.