Hydrogen energy, as a clean and renewable energy, has attracted much attention in recent years. Water electrolysis via the hydrogen evolution reaction at the cathode coupled with the oxygen evolution reaction at the anode is a promising method to produce hydrogen. Given the shortage of freshwater resources on the planet, the direct use of seawater as an electrolyte for hydrogen production has become a hot research topic. Direct use of seawater as the electrolyte for water electrolysis can reduce the cost of hydrogen production due to the great abundance and wide availability. In recent years, various high���efficiency electrocatalysts have made great progress in seawater splitting and have shown great potential. This review introduces the mechanisms and challenges of sea-water splitting and summarizes the recent progress of various electrocatalysts used for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reaction in seawater electrolysis in recent years. Finally, the challenges and future opportunities of seawater electrolysis for hydrogen and oxygen production are presented.