Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Although there is currently no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the available self-management strategies can result in improving the symptoms, slowing the disease progression, reducing the frequency of acute exacerbations, improving the patients’ quality of life and minimising health care utilisation-associated costs. Patient activation is often considered an essential driver of self-management; however, there are contradictory evidence about its impact on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management. Objective: This review aims to fill this gap by collating the available evidence on the effectiveness of patient activation-driven chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management interventions. Methods: Databases including MEDLINE, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, APA PsychInfo, EMBASE and ScienceDirect were searched for randomised controlled trials of patient activation-driven chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management interventions between 2004 and July 2020. The search terms included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, self-management/self-care and patient activation/patient engagement. Findings: The initial search resulted in 645 articles, and after reviewing, 10 randomised controlled trials met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Our review found that patient activation level had a positive association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management and clinical outcomes, and higher patient activation levels led to better outcomes. The interventions also led to moderate improvements in patient activation level. However, improved patient activation levels did not improve hospitalisation rates, quality of life and mental health. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that patient activation can be used as a reliable tool for improving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management and clinical outcomes; however, it should encompass all aspects of patient activation, especially the emotional aspect.