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Breathlessness, Anxiety, Depression, and Function���The BAD-F Study: A Cross-Sectional and Population Prevalence Study in Adults

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Context: Breathlessness is associated with depression, but its relationship to anxiety or impaired function is less clear. Objectives: This study evaluated associations between chronic breathlessness and anxiety, depression, and functional status in the general population. Methods: This cross-sectional study of consenting adults (18 years and older) used an online survey. Quota sampling (n = 3000) was used reflecting the 2016 national census for sex, age, and place of residence. Other data included Four-Item Patient Health Questionnaire for depression and anxiety, the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Breathlessness Scale, and the Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale. Multinomial logistic regression assessed predictors. Results: About 2977 respondents had all relevant scores (female 51.2%; median age 45.0 [range 18���92]). Prevalence of breathlessness (mMRC ���2) was 2.4%, anxiety 6.0%, depression 2.7%, coexisting anxiety/depression 6.1%, and poorer functional status (Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale ���60) 1.6%. In multinomial regression, depression, anxiety, and coexisting anxiety/depression were predicted by younger age, longer duration of breathlessness, and poorer functional status. The highest proportions of people with breathlessness were found in the coexisting anxiety/depression group (10.6%) and depression only group (8.8%). Poorest function was in the coexisting anxiety/depression group with 11.6%. The relationship between poorer functional status and coexisting anxiety/depression was significant (odds ratio 0.90; 95% CI 0.89, 0.92). Adjusted odds ratio for breathlessness and depression only was 3.0 (95% CI 1.2, 7.8). Conclusion: Clinically important breathlessness (mMRC ���2) was associated with depression, anxiety, and coexisting anxiety/depression. Poorer function that is associated with psychological morbidity in the general population requires further research.

Publication Date


  • 2020

Citation


  • Currow, D. C., Chang, S., Reddel, H. K., Kochovska, S., Ferreira, D., Kinchin, I., . . . Ekstr��m, M. (2020). Breathlessness, Anxiety, Depression, and Function���The BAD-F Study: A Cross-Sectional and Population Prevalence Study in Adults. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 59(2), 197-205.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.09.021

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85074539789

Start Page


  • 197

End Page


  • 205.e2

Volume


  • 59

Issue


  • 2

Place Of Publication


Abstract


  • Context: Breathlessness is associated with depression, but its relationship to anxiety or impaired function is less clear. Objectives: This study evaluated associations between chronic breathlessness and anxiety, depression, and functional status in the general population. Methods: This cross-sectional study of consenting adults (18 years and older) used an online survey. Quota sampling (n = 3000) was used reflecting the 2016 national census for sex, age, and place of residence. Other data included Four-Item Patient Health Questionnaire for depression and anxiety, the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Breathlessness Scale, and the Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale. Multinomial logistic regression assessed predictors. Results: About 2977 respondents had all relevant scores (female 51.2%; median age 45.0 [range 18���92]). Prevalence of breathlessness (mMRC ���2) was 2.4%, anxiety 6.0%, depression 2.7%, coexisting anxiety/depression 6.1%, and poorer functional status (Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale ���60) 1.6%. In multinomial regression, depression, anxiety, and coexisting anxiety/depression were predicted by younger age, longer duration of breathlessness, and poorer functional status. The highest proportions of people with breathlessness were found in the coexisting anxiety/depression group (10.6%) and depression only group (8.8%). Poorest function was in the coexisting anxiety/depression group with 11.6%. The relationship between poorer functional status and coexisting anxiety/depression was significant (odds ratio 0.90; 95% CI 0.89, 0.92). Adjusted odds ratio for breathlessness and depression only was 3.0 (95% CI 1.2, 7.8). Conclusion: Clinically important breathlessness (mMRC ���2) was associated with depression, anxiety, and coexisting anxiety/depression. Poorer function that is associated with psychological morbidity in the general population requires further research.

Publication Date


  • 2020

Citation


  • Currow, D. C., Chang, S., Reddel, H. K., Kochovska, S., Ferreira, D., Kinchin, I., . . . Ekstr��m, M. (2020). Breathlessness, Anxiety, Depression, and Function���The BAD-F Study: A Cross-Sectional and Population Prevalence Study in Adults. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 59(2), 197-205.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.09.021

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85074539789

Start Page


  • 197

End Page


  • 205.e2

Volume


  • 59

Issue


  • 2

Place Of Publication