Neuropathic pain (NP) affects approximately 30% of patients with advanced cancer. The prevalence of neuropathic pain related to peripheral neuropathy (NP-RPN) in these patients is not known. The aim of the study was to evaluate NP-RPN prevalence in hospice patients and to find out whether the absence of this pain is sufficient to rule out peripheral neuropathy. The study in-cluded a total of 76 patients with advanced cancer who were cared for at inpatient hospices. All patients were asked about shooting or burning pain (of the feet and hands), were examined system-atically for sensory deficits and had a nerve conduction study performed. NP-RPN was found in 29% of the patients. Electrophysiologically-diagnosed peripheral neuropathy was found in 79% of patients, and the diagnostic electrophysiological criteria for neuropathy were met by one half of the patients without NP-RPN. The severity of NP-RPN was correlated with the clinically assessed severity of sensory neuropathy and the Karnofsky score, but was not correlated with the intensity of the clinical signs of motor neuropathy. The presence of NP-RPN did not reflect greater prevalence of motor and sensory abnormalities in neurological and electrophysiological examinations. The absence of NP-RPN did not rule out polyneuropathy in hospice patients.