As the primary malignant tumor in the brain, glioblastoma exhibits a high mortality due to the challenges for complete treatment by conventional therapeutic methods. It is of great importance to develop innovative therapeutic agents and methods for treatment of glioblastoma. In this work, the imaging and therapy of glioblastoma are reported by using dye sensitized core-shell NaYF4:Yb/Tm@NaYF4:Nd nanoparticles with strong up/down-conversion luminescence, of which the ultraviolet up-conversion emissions at 348 and 365��nm are significantly enhanced by nearly 28 times and used to control the release of SO2 from 5-Amino-1,3-dihydrobenzo[c]thiophene 2,2-dioxide prodrug for gas therapy, and the second near-infrared (NIR-II) down conversion emission at 1340��nm is increased five times and applied for imaging. It is revealed that the released SO2 molecules not only cause oxidative stress damage of tumor cells, but also induce their pro-death autophagy by down-regulating the expression of p62 and up-regulating the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, ultimately inhibiting tumor growth. The work demonstrates the great potential of rare earth nano-platform with functions of NIR-II imaging and photo-controlled gas therapy in the diagnosis and treatment of orthotopic glioblastoma.