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Hydraulic fracturing in high-temperature granite characterized by acoustic emission

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Given the limited successes of hydraulic fracturing in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), understanding of the hydraulic fracturing characteristics in high-temperature granites remains challenging and crucial. In this study, four groups of cube granite specimens (dimensions: 300/300/300mm) were tested to investigate the characteristics of the hydraulic fracture, for two confining pressures (0.1/0.1/0.1MPa and 10/25/30MPa) and temperatures (20��C and 120��C). Acoustic emission (AE) was employed to characterize the hydraulic fracturing processes. The experimental results show that for different temperatures the fracture geometry is almost unchanged, whereas the injection pressure curves, spatial distribution of AE energy, and AE-based source mechanisms are significantly changed. (1) At 120��C, The fracture pressures are increased by 3.6~4.9MPa and two remarkable pressure peaks appear at the injection pressure curves, implying the hydraulic fracture propagates intermittently with increasing resistances. (2) The spatial distributions of AE energy delineate a microcrack-band distributing along the hydraulic fracture. At the high temperature (120��C), the effective width of the microcrack-band is reduced by 40~56.4%, and the fracture energy is reduced by about 75% adjacent to the wellbore (about 40% of the fracture length) in the microcrack-band. (3) Based on the AE source analysis, the fracture mechanisms in the microcrack-band indicate the high-temperature (120��C) reduces the proportion of shear microcracks by 6~12%. The characteristics of high-temperature reducing the effectiveness of EGS hydraulic fracturing are due to the change in granite microstructures from temperature induction and the transient temperature differential (��T) between granite and fracturing fluid. In the EGS hydraulic fracturing, the net pressure should be enhanced in real-time with hydraulic fracture propagation to avoid fracturing arrest, ��T between high-temperature granite and fracturing fluid should be lowered to enlarge the stimulated reservoir volume, and the proppant is suggested to be appropriately placed to prevent the further reduction of the fracturing effectiveness from fracture closures.

Publication Date


  • 2019

Citation


  • Xing, Y., Zhang, G., Luo, T., Jiang, Y., & Ning, S. (2019). Hydraulic fracturing in high-temperature granite characterized by acoustic emission. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 178, 475-484. doi:10.1016/j.petrol.2019.03.050

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85063424221

Start Page


  • 475

End Page


  • 484

Volume


  • 178

Issue


Place Of Publication


Abstract


  • Given the limited successes of hydraulic fracturing in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), understanding of the hydraulic fracturing characteristics in high-temperature granites remains challenging and crucial. In this study, four groups of cube granite specimens (dimensions: 300/300/300mm) were tested to investigate the characteristics of the hydraulic fracture, for two confining pressures (0.1/0.1/0.1MPa and 10/25/30MPa) and temperatures (20��C and 120��C). Acoustic emission (AE) was employed to characterize the hydraulic fracturing processes. The experimental results show that for different temperatures the fracture geometry is almost unchanged, whereas the injection pressure curves, spatial distribution of AE energy, and AE-based source mechanisms are significantly changed. (1) At 120��C, The fracture pressures are increased by 3.6~4.9MPa and two remarkable pressure peaks appear at the injection pressure curves, implying the hydraulic fracture propagates intermittently with increasing resistances. (2) The spatial distributions of AE energy delineate a microcrack-band distributing along the hydraulic fracture. At the high temperature (120��C), the effective width of the microcrack-band is reduced by 40~56.4%, and the fracture energy is reduced by about 75% adjacent to the wellbore (about 40% of the fracture length) in the microcrack-band. (3) Based on the AE source analysis, the fracture mechanisms in the microcrack-band indicate the high-temperature (120��C) reduces the proportion of shear microcracks by 6~12%. The characteristics of high-temperature reducing the effectiveness of EGS hydraulic fracturing are due to the change in granite microstructures from temperature induction and the transient temperature differential (��T) between granite and fracturing fluid. In the EGS hydraulic fracturing, the net pressure should be enhanced in real-time with hydraulic fracture propagation to avoid fracturing arrest, ��T between high-temperature granite and fracturing fluid should be lowered to enlarge the stimulated reservoir volume, and the proppant is suggested to be appropriately placed to prevent the further reduction of the fracturing effectiveness from fracture closures.

Publication Date


  • 2019

Citation


  • Xing, Y., Zhang, G., Luo, T., Jiang, Y., & Ning, S. (2019). Hydraulic fracturing in high-temperature granite characterized by acoustic emission. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 178, 475-484. doi:10.1016/j.petrol.2019.03.050

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85063424221

Start Page


  • 475

End Page


  • 484

Volume


  • 178

Issue


Place Of Publication