The global distribution patterns of 14918 geo-referenced occurrences from 394 living brachiopod species were mapped in 5° grid cells, which enabled the visualization and delineation of distinct bioregions and biodiversity hotspots. Further investigation using cluster and network analyses allowed us to propose the first systematically and quantitatively recognized global bioregionalization framework for living brachiopods, consisting of five bioregions and thirteen bioprovinces. No single environmental or ecological variable is accountable for the newly proposed global bioregionalization patterns of living brachiopods. Instead, the combined effects of large-scale ocean gyres, climatic zonation as well as some geohistorical factors (e.g., formation of land bridges and geological recent closure of ancient seaways) are considered as the main drivers at the global scale. At the regional scale, however, the faunal composition, diversity and biogeographical differentiation appear to be mainly controlled by seawater temperature variation, regional ocean currents and coastal upwelling systems.