Recently, a putative functional polymorphism (- 141C Ins/Del) in the 5′-flanking region of the dopamine D2 receptor was found. An association of the Ins allele with schizophrenia has been described in a Japanese sample. In the present study this association was examined in a German schizophrenia patient population. In a family based approach 190 German family trios were analyzed for the - 141C Ins/Del genotype. Using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) we found no evidence for an association of the Ins allele with schizophrenia (TDT = 0.152, P = 0.696). In parallel, we performed an independent case control study with 268 schizophrenic patients and 244 controls. Again, we did not detect an overrepresentation of the Ins allele in patients (P = 0.124). Thus, our data do not support the hypothesis that the -141C Ins variant plays a major role in predisposition to schizophrenia. To confirm our conclusion further preferentially family based studies are needed.