Schizophrenia is a genetic complex disease as it does not follow monogenic transmission while non-familial environmental factors have a strong additional impact. A heterogenous, continuous phenotype is transmitted in families which can now be more precisely characterized. Genes coding for proteins with presumed pathophysiological relevance are apparently not playing a major causal role. However, in the last three years several (currently seven) candidate regions have been identified in a replicable manner by linkage studies. These regions are likely to host susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, but none of them has been identified up to now. Given these findings, polygenic transmission has now become very likely. The candidate regions are currently being narrowed down by various promising techniques.