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A new integrated approach for landslide data balancing and spatial prediction based on generative adversarial networks (GAN)

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Landslide susceptibility mapping has significantly progressed with improvements in machine learning techniques. However, the inventory / data imbalance (DI) problem remains one of the challenges in this domain. This problem exists as a good quality landslide inventory map, including a complete record of historical data, is difficult or expensive to collect. As such, this can considerably affect one’s ability to obtain a sufficient inventory or representative samples. This research developed a new approach based on generative adversarial networks (GAN) to correct imbalanced landslide datasets. The proposed method was tested at Chukha Dzongkhag, Bhutan, one of the most frequent landslide prone areas in the Himalayan region. The proposed approach was then compared with the standard methods such as the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE), dense imbalanced sampling, and sparse sampling (i.e., producing non-landslide samples as many as landslide samples). The comparisons were based on five machine learning models, including artificial neural networks (ANN), random forests (RF), decision trees (DT), k-nearest neighbours (kNN), and the support vector machine (SVM). The model evaluation was carried out based on overall accuracy (OA), Kappa Index, F1-score, and area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). The spatial database was established with a total of 269 landslides and 10 conditioning factors, including altitude, slope, aspect, total curvature, slope length, lithology, distance from the road, distance from the stream, topographic wetness index (TWI), and sediment transport index (STI). The findings of this study have shown that both GAN and SMOTE data balancing approaches have helped to improve the accuracy of machine learning models. According to AUROC, the GAN method was able to boost the models by reaching the maximum accuracy of ANN (0.918), RF (0.933), DT (0.927), kNN (0.878), and SVM (0.907) when default parameters used. With the optimum parameters, all models performed best with GAN at their highest accuracy of ANN (0.927), RF (0.943), DT (0.923) and kNN (0.889), except SVM obtained the highest accuracy of (0.906) with SMOTE. Our finding suggests that RF balanced with GAN can provide the most reasonable criterion for landslide prediction. This research indicates that landslide data balancing may substantially affect the predictive capabilities of machine learning models. Therefore, the issue of DI in the spatial prediction of landslides should not be ignored. Future studies could explore other generative models for landslide data balancing. By using state-of-the-art GAN, the proposed model can be considered in the areas where the data are limited or imbalanced.

Publication Date


  • 2021

Citation


  • Al-Najjar, H. A. H., Pradhan, B., Sarkar, R., Beydoun, G., & Alamri, A. (2021). A new integrated approach for landslide data balancing and spatial prediction based on generative adversarial networks (GAN). Remote Sensing, 13(19). doi:10.3390/rs13194011

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85116675195

Volume


  • 13

Issue


  • 19

Abstract


  • Landslide susceptibility mapping has significantly progressed with improvements in machine learning techniques. However, the inventory / data imbalance (DI) problem remains one of the challenges in this domain. This problem exists as a good quality landslide inventory map, including a complete record of historical data, is difficult or expensive to collect. As such, this can considerably affect one’s ability to obtain a sufficient inventory or representative samples. This research developed a new approach based on generative adversarial networks (GAN) to correct imbalanced landslide datasets. The proposed method was tested at Chukha Dzongkhag, Bhutan, one of the most frequent landslide prone areas in the Himalayan region. The proposed approach was then compared with the standard methods such as the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE), dense imbalanced sampling, and sparse sampling (i.e., producing non-landslide samples as many as landslide samples). The comparisons were based on five machine learning models, including artificial neural networks (ANN), random forests (RF), decision trees (DT), k-nearest neighbours (kNN), and the support vector machine (SVM). The model evaluation was carried out based on overall accuracy (OA), Kappa Index, F1-score, and area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). The spatial database was established with a total of 269 landslides and 10 conditioning factors, including altitude, slope, aspect, total curvature, slope length, lithology, distance from the road, distance from the stream, topographic wetness index (TWI), and sediment transport index (STI). The findings of this study have shown that both GAN and SMOTE data balancing approaches have helped to improve the accuracy of machine learning models. According to AUROC, the GAN method was able to boost the models by reaching the maximum accuracy of ANN (0.918), RF (0.933), DT (0.927), kNN (0.878), and SVM (0.907) when default parameters used. With the optimum parameters, all models performed best with GAN at their highest accuracy of ANN (0.927), RF (0.943), DT (0.923) and kNN (0.889), except SVM obtained the highest accuracy of (0.906) with SMOTE. Our finding suggests that RF balanced with GAN can provide the most reasonable criterion for landslide prediction. This research indicates that landslide data balancing may substantially affect the predictive capabilities of machine learning models. Therefore, the issue of DI in the spatial prediction of landslides should not be ignored. Future studies could explore other generative models for landslide data balancing. By using state-of-the-art GAN, the proposed model can be considered in the areas where the data are limited or imbalanced.

Publication Date


  • 2021

Citation


  • Al-Najjar, H. A. H., Pradhan, B., Sarkar, R., Beydoun, G., & Alamri, A. (2021). A new integrated approach for landslide data balancing and spatial prediction based on generative adversarial networks (GAN). Remote Sensing, 13(19). doi:10.3390/rs13194011

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85116675195

Volume


  • 13

Issue


  • 19