Sodium-ion batteries are emerging energy storage and conversion devices for a sustainable and clean society. The performance of sodium-ion batteries can be reasonably boosted through structural engineering of electrode materials. Herein, different structural engineering strategies for typical electrode materials are clearly classified and introduced. For different types of electrode materials, emphasis is put on structural design and/or modification, both of which are presented in detail. The roles and effects of effective strategies are systematically summarized and prospected at the end. It is expected to provide a whole picture and insight into the structural design and modification of various electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries that can be extended to other metal-ion batteries.