Biofabrication using well-matched cell/materials systems provides unprecedented opportunities for dealing with human health issues where disease or injury overtake the body’s native regenerative abilities. Such opportunities can be enhanced through the development of biomaterials with cues that appropriately influence embedded cells into forming functional tissues and organs. In this context, biomaterials’ reliance on rigid biofabrication techniques needs to support the incorporation of a hierarchical mimicry of local and bulk biological cues that mimic the key functional components of native extracellular matrix. Advances in synthetic self-assembling peptide biomaterials promise to produce reproducible mimics of tissue-specific structures and may go some way in overcoming batch inconsistency issues of naturally sourced materials. Recent work in this area has demonstrated biofabrication with self-assembling peptide biomaterials with unique biofabrication technologies to support structural fidelity upon 3D patterning. The use of synthetic self-assembling peptide biomaterials is a growing field that has demonstrated applicability in dermal, intestinal, muscle, cancer and stem cell tissue engineering.