Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a curative therapy for blood cancers and other haematological disorders. However, allo-HSCT leads to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a severe and often lethal immunological response, in the majority of transplant recipients. Current therapies for GVHD are limited and often reduce the effectiveness of allo-HSCT. Therefore, pro- and anti-inflammatory factors contributing to disease need to be explored in order to identify new treatment targets. Purinergic signalling plays important roles in haematopoiesis, inflammation and immunity, and recent evidence suggests that it can also affect haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and GVHD development. This review provides a detailed assessment of the emerging roles of purinergic receptors, most notably P2X7, P2Y2 and A2A receptors, and ectoen-zymes, CD39 and CD73, in GVHD.