Background: There is limited published research on the epidemiology of basketball injuries treated in US emergency departments (EDs). Hypothesis: Age and sex patterns exist for the most common pediatric basketball injuries treated in EDs. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and the National Sporting Goods Association were used to calculate national injury incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals of pediatric basketball injuries. Results: An estimated 325 465 annual visits were made to US EDs for pediatric basketball-related injuries from 2000 to 2006. The 5 most common injuries were ankle sprains (21.7%), finger sprains (8.0%), finger fractures (7.8%), knee sprains (3.9%), and facial lacerations (3.9%). Among persons aged 12 to 17 years, girls had a higher rate of knee sprains than boys (P < 0.001), but this association did not exist among those aged 7 to 11 years (P = 0.27). Boys had a higher rate of facial lacerations than girls (P < 0.01). Among persons aged 12 to 17 years, girls had a higher rate of finger sprains (P < 0.01). For both boys and girls, the rate of the 5 most common basketball injuries was higher among those aged 12 to 17 years compared with those aged 7 to 11 years (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The annual number of basketball-related pediatric ED visits approaches a third of a million and demonstrates the extent of the public health problem that injuries in this sport pose. Distinct sex and age patterns were observed. Clinical Relevance: The study findings provide important information on basketball injury rates that may be used for targeting prevention interventions by sex and age group. �� 2011 The Author(s).