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Non-radiographic methods of measuring global sagittal balance: A systematic review

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Background: Global sagittal balance, describing the vertical alignment of the spine, is an important factor in the non-operative and operative management of back pain. However, the typical gold standard method of assessment, radiography, requires exposure to radiation and increased cost, making it unsuitable for repeated use. Non-radiologic methods of assessment are available, but their reliability and validity in the current literature have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to synthesise and evaluate the reliability and validity of non-radiographic methods of assessing global sagittal balance. Methods: Five electronic databases were searched and methodology evaluated by two independent reviewers using the13-item, reliability and validity, Brink and Louw critical appraisal tool. Results: Fourteen articles describing six methodologies were identified from 3940 records. The six non-radiographic methodologies were biophotogrammetry, plumbline, surface topography, infra-red motion analysis, spinal mouse and ultrasound. Construct validity was evaluated for surface topography (R=0.49 and R=0.68, p<0.001), infra-red motion-analysis (ICC=0.81) and plumbline testing (ICC=0.83). Reliability ranged from moderate (ICC=0.67) for spinal mouse to very high for surface topography (Cronbach ��=0.985). Measures of agreement ranged from 0.9 mm (plumbline) to 22.94 mm (infra-red motion-analysis). Variability in study populations, reporting parameters and statistics prevented a meta-analysis. Conclusions: The reliability and validity of the non-radiographic methods of measuring global sagittal balance was reported within 14 identified articles. Based on this limited evidence, non-radiographic methods appear to have moderate to very high reliability and limited to three methodologies, moderate to high validity. The overall quality and methodological approaches of the included articles were highly variable. Further research should focus on the validity of non-radiographic methods with a greater adherence to reporting actual and clinically relevant measures of agreement.

Publication Date


  • 2017

Citation


  • Cohen, L., Kobayashi, S., Simic, M., Dennis, S., Refshauge, K., & Pappas, E. (2017). Non-radiographic methods of measuring global sagittal balance: A systematic review. Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders, 12(1). doi:10.1186/s13013-017-0135-x

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85030656481

Volume


  • 12

Issue


  • 1

Place Of Publication


Abstract


  • Background: Global sagittal balance, describing the vertical alignment of the spine, is an important factor in the non-operative and operative management of back pain. However, the typical gold standard method of assessment, radiography, requires exposure to radiation and increased cost, making it unsuitable for repeated use. Non-radiologic methods of assessment are available, but their reliability and validity in the current literature have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to synthesise and evaluate the reliability and validity of non-radiographic methods of assessing global sagittal balance. Methods: Five electronic databases were searched and methodology evaluated by two independent reviewers using the13-item, reliability and validity, Brink and Louw critical appraisal tool. Results: Fourteen articles describing six methodologies were identified from 3940 records. The six non-radiographic methodologies were biophotogrammetry, plumbline, surface topography, infra-red motion analysis, spinal mouse and ultrasound. Construct validity was evaluated for surface topography (R=0.49 and R=0.68, p<0.001), infra-red motion-analysis (ICC=0.81) and plumbline testing (ICC=0.83). Reliability ranged from moderate (ICC=0.67) for spinal mouse to very high for surface topography (Cronbach ��=0.985). Measures of agreement ranged from 0.9 mm (plumbline) to 22.94 mm (infra-red motion-analysis). Variability in study populations, reporting parameters and statistics prevented a meta-analysis. Conclusions: The reliability and validity of the non-radiographic methods of measuring global sagittal balance was reported within 14 identified articles. Based on this limited evidence, non-radiographic methods appear to have moderate to very high reliability and limited to three methodologies, moderate to high validity. The overall quality and methodological approaches of the included articles were highly variable. Further research should focus on the validity of non-radiographic methods with a greater adherence to reporting actual and clinically relevant measures of agreement.

Publication Date


  • 2017

Citation


  • Cohen, L., Kobayashi, S., Simic, M., Dennis, S., Refshauge, K., & Pappas, E. (2017). Non-radiographic methods of measuring global sagittal balance: A systematic review. Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders, 12(1). doi:10.1186/s13013-017-0135-x

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85030656481

Volume


  • 12

Issue


  • 1

Place Of Publication