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The sliding window and shap theory—an improved system with a long short-term memory network model for state of charge prediction in electric vehicle application

Journal Article


Abstract


  • The state of charge (SOC) prediction for an electric vehicle battery pack is critical to ensure the reliability, efficiency, and life of the battery pack. Various techniques and statistical systems have been proposed in the past to improve the prediction accuracy, reduce complexity, and increase adaptability. Machine learning techniques have been vigorously introduced in recent years, to be incorporated into the existing prediction algorithms, or as a stand-alone system, with a large amount of recorded past data to interpret the battery characteristics, and further predict for the present and future. This paper presents an overview of the machine learning techniques followed by a proposed pre-processing technique employed as the input to the long short-term memory network (LSTM) algorithm. The proposed pre-processing technique is based on the time-based sliding window algorithm (SW) and the Shapley additive explanation theory (SHAP). The proposed technique showed improvement in accuracy, adaptability, and reliability of SOC prediction when compared to other conventional machine learning models. All the data employed in this investigation were extracted from the actual driving cycle of five different electric vehicles driven by different drivers throughout a year. The computed prediction error, as compared to the original SOC data extracted from the vehicle, was within the range of less than 2%. The proposed enhanced technique also demonstrated the feasibility and robustness of the prediction results through the persistent computed output from a random selection of the data sets, consisting of different driving profiles and ambient conditions.

UOW Authors


Publication Date


  • 2021

Citation


  • Gu, X., See, K. W., Wang, Y., Zhao, L., & Pu, W. (2021). The sliding window and shap theory—an improved system with a long short-term memory network model for state of charge prediction in electric vehicle application. Energies, 14(12). doi:10.3390/en14123692

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85109032448

Web Of Science Accession Number


Volume


  • 14

Issue


  • 12

Abstract


  • The state of charge (SOC) prediction for an electric vehicle battery pack is critical to ensure the reliability, efficiency, and life of the battery pack. Various techniques and statistical systems have been proposed in the past to improve the prediction accuracy, reduce complexity, and increase adaptability. Machine learning techniques have been vigorously introduced in recent years, to be incorporated into the existing prediction algorithms, or as a stand-alone system, with a large amount of recorded past data to interpret the battery characteristics, and further predict for the present and future. This paper presents an overview of the machine learning techniques followed by a proposed pre-processing technique employed as the input to the long short-term memory network (LSTM) algorithm. The proposed pre-processing technique is based on the time-based sliding window algorithm (SW) and the Shapley additive explanation theory (SHAP). The proposed technique showed improvement in accuracy, adaptability, and reliability of SOC prediction when compared to other conventional machine learning models. All the data employed in this investigation were extracted from the actual driving cycle of five different electric vehicles driven by different drivers throughout a year. The computed prediction error, as compared to the original SOC data extracted from the vehicle, was within the range of less than 2%. The proposed enhanced technique also demonstrated the feasibility and robustness of the prediction results through the persistent computed output from a random selection of the data sets, consisting of different driving profiles and ambient conditions.

UOW Authors


Publication Date


  • 2021

Citation


  • Gu, X., See, K. W., Wang, Y., Zhao, L., & Pu, W. (2021). The sliding window and shap theory—an improved system with a long short-term memory network model for state of charge prediction in electric vehicle application. Energies, 14(12). doi:10.3390/en14123692

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85109032448

Web Of Science Accession Number


Volume


  • 14

Issue


  • 12