The generation of sulfidopeptide leukotrienes and leukotriene B (LTB) in response to an IgG-mediated immune complex reaction in the peritoneal cavities of rats fed either a menhaden oil-supplemented diet or a beef tallow-supplemented diet for 9 to 10 wk was determined with the combined techniques of radioimmunoassay (RIA) and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Rats on the fish fat diet (FFD) incorporated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) into pulmonary and splenic tissues with an EPA:arachidonic acid ratio of approximately 2:1, whereas rats on the beef fat diet (BFD) showed no detectable EPA. The estimated total quantities of immunoreactive sulfidopeptide leukotrienes generated by each group of rats were similar, ranging from 70 to 99 ng/ rat in the FFD groups and 65 to 109 ng/rat in the BFD groups; for rats on the FFD this total included the pentaene products LTC5, LTD5, and LTE5 in quantities ranging from 24 to 39 ng/rat. The total quantities of immunoreactive LTB generated in the two groups of rats were similar, being 6 to 29 ng LTB4/rat for the BFD groups and the sum of LTB4 and LTB5 of 8 to 36 ng/rat for the FFD groups. There was a two- to seven-fold preferential generation of immunoreactive LTB5 over LTB4 in the FFD rats. LTC5 was equipotent with LTC4 in contracting guinea pig pulmonary parenchymal strips and ileal tissues. In contrast, LTB5 was 1/30 to 1/60 as potent and did not reach the same maximum as LTB4 in eliciting neutrophil chemotaxis. The finding that FFD favors the immunologic generation of LTB5, which has attenuated biologic activity when compared to LTB4, suggests that EPA-enriched tissues may produce less pro-inflammatory activity than tissues that are EPA-poor.