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A numerical evaluation of SAR distribution and temperature changes around a metallic plate in the head of a RF exposed worker

Journal Article


Abstract


  • The 1998 International Commission for Non-Ionising Radiation (ICNIRP) Guidelines for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields contain a recommendation to assess the potential impact of metallic implants in workers exposed up to the allowable occupational field limits. This study provides an example of how numerical electromagnetic (EM) and thermal modelling can be used to determine whether scattered RF fields around metallic implants in workers exposed to allowable occupational ambient field limits will comply with the recommendations of relevant standards and guidelines. A case study is performed for plane wave exposures of a 50 mm diameter titanium cranioplasty plate, implanted around 5-6 mm under the surface of the forehead. The level of exposures was set to the ambient power flux density limits for occupational exposures specified in the 1998 ICNIRP guidelines and the current 1999 IEEE C95.1 standard over the frequency range 100-3000 MHz. Two distinct peak responses were observed. There was a resonant response for the whole implant at 200-300 MHz where the maximum dimension of the implant is around a third of the wavelength of the RF exposure. This, however, resulted in relatively low peak specific energy absorption rate (SAR) levels around the implant at the exposure limits. Between 2100-2800 MHz, a second SAR concentrating mechanism of constructive interference of the wave reflected back and forth between the air-scalp interface and the scalp-plate interface resulted in higher peak SARs that were within the allowable limits for the ICNIRP exposures, but not for the IEEE C95.1 exposures. Moreover, the IEEE peak SAR limits were also exceeded, to a lesser degree, even when the implant was not present. However, thermal modelling indicated that the peak SAR concentrations around the implant did not result in any peak temperature rise above 1 °C for occupational exposures recommended in the ICNIRP guidelines, and hence would not pose any significant health risk. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

UOW Authors


  •   Anderson, Vitas (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2005

Citation


  • McIntosh, R. L., Anderson, V., & McKenzie, R. J. (2005). A numerical evaluation of SAR distribution and temperature changes around a metallic plate in the head of a RF exposed worker. Bioelectromagnetics, 26(5), 377-388. doi:10.1002/bem.20112

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-22044456047

Web Of Science Accession Number


Start Page


  • 377

End Page


  • 388

Volume


  • 26

Issue


  • 5

Abstract


  • The 1998 International Commission for Non-Ionising Radiation (ICNIRP) Guidelines for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields contain a recommendation to assess the potential impact of metallic implants in workers exposed up to the allowable occupational field limits. This study provides an example of how numerical electromagnetic (EM) and thermal modelling can be used to determine whether scattered RF fields around metallic implants in workers exposed to allowable occupational ambient field limits will comply with the recommendations of relevant standards and guidelines. A case study is performed for plane wave exposures of a 50 mm diameter titanium cranioplasty plate, implanted around 5-6 mm under the surface of the forehead. The level of exposures was set to the ambient power flux density limits for occupational exposures specified in the 1998 ICNIRP guidelines and the current 1999 IEEE C95.1 standard over the frequency range 100-3000 MHz. Two distinct peak responses were observed. There was a resonant response for the whole implant at 200-300 MHz where the maximum dimension of the implant is around a third of the wavelength of the RF exposure. This, however, resulted in relatively low peak specific energy absorption rate (SAR) levels around the implant at the exposure limits. Between 2100-2800 MHz, a second SAR concentrating mechanism of constructive interference of the wave reflected back and forth between the air-scalp interface and the scalp-plate interface resulted in higher peak SARs that were within the allowable limits for the ICNIRP exposures, but not for the IEEE C95.1 exposures. Moreover, the IEEE peak SAR limits were also exceeded, to a lesser degree, even when the implant was not present. However, thermal modelling indicated that the peak SAR concentrations around the implant did not result in any peak temperature rise above 1 °C for occupational exposures recommended in the ICNIRP guidelines, and hence would not pose any significant health risk. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

UOW Authors


  •   Anderson, Vitas (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2005

Citation


  • McIntosh, R. L., Anderson, V., & McKenzie, R. J. (2005). A numerical evaluation of SAR distribution and temperature changes around a metallic plate in the head of a RF exposed worker. Bioelectromagnetics, 26(5), 377-388. doi:10.1002/bem.20112

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-22044456047

Web Of Science Accession Number


Start Page


  • 377

End Page


  • 388

Volume


  • 26

Issue


  • 5