This paper summarized the metabolic pathways, mechanisms, and performance of various microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) microorganisms as self-healing agents for the development of self-healing bioconcrete. Despite the remarkable progress achieved to date, the high costs involved in the cultivation and encapsulation of the axenic cultures have led to a shift of research focus towards the use of non-axenic microbial cultures. They have superior benefits as self-healing agents in terms of easy cultivation and low cost. Granular sludge was widely used in wastewater treatment. Considering the high need for concrete-based wastewater infrastructure, granular sludge cultivated using wastewater has the potential to develop bioconcrete for sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants. To achieve large-scale application, future research should enhance the understanding of the long-term performances and develop systematic and comparable evaluation methods.