With the advantages of superior wear resistance, mechanical durability, and stability, the liquid-solid mode triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been attracting much attention in the field of energy harvesting and self-powered sensors. However, most reports are primarily observational, and there still lacks a universal model of this kind of TENG. Here, an equivalent circuit model and corresponding governing equations of a water-solid mode TENG are developed, which could easily be extended to other types of liquid-solid mode TENGs. Based on the first-order lumped circuit theory, the full equivalent circuit model of water-solid mode TENG is modeled as a series connection of two capacitors and a water resistor. Accordingly, its output characteristics and critical influences are examined, to investigate the relevant physical mechanism behind them. Afterward, a three-dimensional water-solid TENG array constructed from many single-wire TENGs is fabricated, which can not only harvest tiny amounts of energy from any movement of water, but also can verify our theoretical predictions. The fundamentals of the water-solid mode TENG presented in this work could contribute to solving the problem of electrical phenomena on a liquid-solid interface, and may establish a sound basis for a thorough understanding of the liquid-solid mode TENG.