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More-2-Eat implementation demonstrates that screening, assessment and treatment of malnourished patients can be spread and sustained in acute care; a multi-site, pretest post-test time series study

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Background: Malnutrition in medical and surgical inpatients is an on-going problem. More-2-Eat (M2E) Phase 1 demonstrated that improved detection and treatment of hospital malnutrition could be embedded into routine practice using an intensive researcher-facilitated implementation process. Yet, spreading and sustaining new practices in diverse hospital cultures with minimal researcher support is unknown. Aims: To demonstrate that a scalable model of implementation can increase three key nutrition practices (admission screening; Subjective Global Assessment (SGA); and medication pass (MedPass) of oral nutritional supplement) in diverse acute care hospitals to detect and treat malnutrition in medical and surgical patients. Methods: Ten hospitals participated in this pretest post-test time series implementation study from across Canada, including 21 medical or surgical units (Phase 1 original units (n = 4), Phase 1 hospital new units (n = 9), Phase 2 new hospitals and units (n = 8)). The scalable implementation model included: training champions on implementation strategies and providing them with education resources for teams; creating a self-directed audit and feedback process; and providing mentorship. Standardized audits of all patients on the study unit on an audit day were completed bi-monthly to track nutrition care activities since admission. Bivariate comparisons were performed by time period (initial, mid-term and final audits). Run-charts depicted the trajectory of change and qualitatively compared to Phase 1. Results: 5158 patient charts were audited over the course of 18-months. Admission nutrition screening rates increased from 50% to 84% (p < 0.0001). New Phase 1 units more readily implemented screening than Phase 2 sites, and the original Phase 1 units generally sustained screening practices from Phase 1. SGA was a sustained practice at Phase 1 hospitals including in new Phase 1 units. The new Phase 2 units improved completion of SGA but did not reach the levels of Phase 1 units (original or new). MedPass almost doubled over the time periods (7%–13% of all patients p < 0.007). Other care practices significantly increased (e.g. volunteer mealtime assistance). Conclusion: Nutrition-care activities significantly increased in diverse hospital units with this scalable model. This heralds the transition from implementation research to sustained changes in routine practice. Screening, SGA, and MedPass can all be implemented, improve nutrition care for all patients, spread within an organization, and for the most part, sustained (and in the case of original Phase 1 units, for over 3 years) with champion leadership.

Publication Date


  • 2021

Citation


  • Keller, H., Koechl, J. M., Laur, C., Chen, H., Curtis, L., Dubin, J. A., . . . Bell, J. (2021). More-2-Eat implementation demonstrates that screening, assessment and treatment of malnourished patients can be spread and sustained in acute care; a multi-site, pretest post-test time series study. Clinical Nutrition, 40(4), 2100-2108. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.09.034

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85092797263

Web Of Science Accession Number


Start Page


  • 2100

End Page


  • 2108

Volume


  • 40

Issue


  • 4

Abstract


  • Background: Malnutrition in medical and surgical inpatients is an on-going problem. More-2-Eat (M2E) Phase 1 demonstrated that improved detection and treatment of hospital malnutrition could be embedded into routine practice using an intensive researcher-facilitated implementation process. Yet, spreading and sustaining new practices in diverse hospital cultures with minimal researcher support is unknown. Aims: To demonstrate that a scalable model of implementation can increase three key nutrition practices (admission screening; Subjective Global Assessment (SGA); and medication pass (MedPass) of oral nutritional supplement) in diverse acute care hospitals to detect and treat malnutrition in medical and surgical patients. Methods: Ten hospitals participated in this pretest post-test time series implementation study from across Canada, including 21 medical or surgical units (Phase 1 original units (n = 4), Phase 1 hospital new units (n = 9), Phase 2 new hospitals and units (n = 8)). The scalable implementation model included: training champions on implementation strategies and providing them with education resources for teams; creating a self-directed audit and feedback process; and providing mentorship. Standardized audits of all patients on the study unit on an audit day were completed bi-monthly to track nutrition care activities since admission. Bivariate comparisons were performed by time period (initial, mid-term and final audits). Run-charts depicted the trajectory of change and qualitatively compared to Phase 1. Results: 5158 patient charts were audited over the course of 18-months. Admission nutrition screening rates increased from 50% to 84% (p < 0.0001). New Phase 1 units more readily implemented screening than Phase 2 sites, and the original Phase 1 units generally sustained screening practices from Phase 1. SGA was a sustained practice at Phase 1 hospitals including in new Phase 1 units. The new Phase 2 units improved completion of SGA but did not reach the levels of Phase 1 units (original or new). MedPass almost doubled over the time periods (7%–13% of all patients p < 0.007). Other care practices significantly increased (e.g. volunteer mealtime assistance). Conclusion: Nutrition-care activities significantly increased in diverse hospital units with this scalable model. This heralds the transition from implementation research to sustained changes in routine practice. Screening, SGA, and MedPass can all be implemented, improve nutrition care for all patients, spread within an organization, and for the most part, sustained (and in the case of original Phase 1 units, for over 3 years) with champion leadership.

Publication Date


  • 2021

Citation


  • Keller, H., Koechl, J. M., Laur, C., Chen, H., Curtis, L., Dubin, J. A., . . . Bell, J. (2021). More-2-Eat implementation demonstrates that screening, assessment and treatment of malnourished patients can be spread and sustained in acute care; a multi-site, pretest post-test time series study. Clinical Nutrition, 40(4), 2100-2108. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.09.034

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85092797263

Web Of Science Accession Number


Start Page


  • 2100

End Page


  • 2108

Volume


  • 40

Issue


  • 4