Establishment of eucalypt seedlings is often uncertain due to climate risks, especially in terms of drought-related moisture stress. We reviewed scientific knowledge relevant to short-term 'establishment success', in terms of seedling survival and photosynthetic and vegetative growth responses during the establishment phase (post-germination and emergence). The scientific literature was searched for articles specifically examining eucalypt seedlings less than a year old, their survival (or mortality), and their growth responses to soil moisture deficits and vapour pressure deficits. Forty articles were reviewed, spanning 38 eucalypt species. This review has identified five knowledge gaps in the literature regarding eucalypt seedling establishment and moisture availability. Firstly, this literature is dominated by studies of coastal and sub-coastal commercial timber species, with few studies of the inland species more commonly used for environmental revegetation purposes. Secondly, these studies tend to focus on seedling growth rather than seedling survival. Thirdly, although there are many studies manipulating soil moisture levels, very few have tested the effects of different climatic conditions. Fourthly, most of these studies have been conducted under glasshouse or controlled chamber conditions with seedlings in pots, rather than under natural conditions with seedlings in the field. Finally, there appear to have been no co-ordinated comparisons of eucalypt seedling water relations as distinct from adult water relations. Considering that the Eucalyptus genus comprises over 700 species, with widespread distribution, has fundamental importance in terms of biodiversity and revegetation, and is rapidly increasing in popularity for commercial production, significant research questions remain. © 2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.