Sulfur/graphene nanocomposite material has been prepared by incorporating sulfur into the graphene frameworks through a melting process. Field-emission scanning electron microscope analysis shows a homogeneous distribution of sulfur in the graphene nanosheet matrix. The sulfur/graphene nanocomposite exhibits a super-high lithium-storage capacity of 1580 mAh g -1 and a satisfactory cycling performance in lithium-sulfur cells. The enhancement of the reversible capacity and cycle life could be attributed to the flexible graphene nanosheet matrix, which acts as a conducting medium and a physical buffer to cushion the volume change of sulfur during the lithiation and delithiation process. Graphene-based nanocomposites can significantly improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.