Bacterial reproduction in fabric has been a threat to human health for centuries. Although several self-cleaning fabrics have been tried, serious drawbacks such as complex manufacturing, high price and low durability, seriously limit their applications. Herein, a functional composite fabric composed by polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymer carbon nitride (PCN) was prepared by facile electrospinning and high-pressure steam methods. This PAN/PCN fabrics not only show filtration capacity (NTU = 1) as high as that of commercial filters, but also exhibits outstanding photocatalytic disinfection performance. Acinetobacter baumannii (log 6), Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157) (log 3.8) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (log 6) can be inactivated within 120 min by this fabrics. Additionally, PAN/PCN composite fabrics show an excellent stability, long-term durability (50 circles for disinfection properties) and self-cleaning properties. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of photo-generated holes (h+) and H2O2 is proven to be the most crucial disinfectant by the quenching experiments for free radicals. The as-proposed PAN/PCN composite fabrics have great promise for water filtration and disinfection, shedding light on development of water treatment technology for practical application in poorer regions.