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Revitalising sodium-sulfur batteries for non-high-temperature operation: A crucial review

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Rechargeable sodium-sulfur (Na-S) batteries are regarded as a promising energy storage technology due to their high energy density and low cost. High-temperature sodium-sulfur (HT Na-S) batteries with molten sodium and sulfur as cathode materials were proposed in 1966, and later successfully commercialised for utility-scale stationary energy storage. However, their high working temperature (300-350 °C) causes some detrimental problems such as high operating costs, difficulties of maintenance (corrosion), and severe safety issues. In particular, HT Na-S batteries with Na polysulfides as the final discharge product only deliver about a third of the sulfur's theoretical capacity. These drawbacks greatly limited the broader applications of HT Na-S batteries. In recent years, extensive efforts have been devoted to developing next-generation intermediate-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries (IMT Na-S, operating at 120-300 °C) and room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries (RT Na-S) with higher capacity, lower maintenance cost and enhanced safety. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the latest progress on IMT Na-S and RT Na-S batteries. We elucidate the working principles, opportunities and challenges of these non-high-temperature Na-S battery systems, and summarise the advances in the battery components including cathodes, anodes, electrolytes, and other battery constituents. In particular, the applications of solid-state electrolytes in IMT Na-S and RT Na-S chemistry are emphasised. The remaining challenges and clear perspectives are outlined for the future development of novel high-performance Na-S batteries.

UOW Authors


  •   Wang, Guoxiu (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2020

Citation


  • Wang, Y., Zhou, D., Palomares, V., Shanmukaraj, D., Sun, B., Tang, X., . . . Wang, G. (2020). Revitalising sodium-sulfur batteries for non-high-temperature operation: A crucial review. Energy and Environmental Science, 13(11), 3848-3879. doi:10.1039/d0ee02203a

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85097491320

Start Page


  • 3848

End Page


  • 3879

Volume


  • 13

Issue


  • 11

Abstract


  • Rechargeable sodium-sulfur (Na-S) batteries are regarded as a promising energy storage technology due to their high energy density and low cost. High-temperature sodium-sulfur (HT Na-S) batteries with molten sodium and sulfur as cathode materials were proposed in 1966, and later successfully commercialised for utility-scale stationary energy storage. However, their high working temperature (300-350 °C) causes some detrimental problems such as high operating costs, difficulties of maintenance (corrosion), and severe safety issues. In particular, HT Na-S batteries with Na polysulfides as the final discharge product only deliver about a third of the sulfur's theoretical capacity. These drawbacks greatly limited the broader applications of HT Na-S batteries. In recent years, extensive efforts have been devoted to developing next-generation intermediate-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries (IMT Na-S, operating at 120-300 °C) and room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries (RT Na-S) with higher capacity, lower maintenance cost and enhanced safety. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the latest progress on IMT Na-S and RT Na-S batteries. We elucidate the working principles, opportunities and challenges of these non-high-temperature Na-S battery systems, and summarise the advances in the battery components including cathodes, anodes, electrolytes, and other battery constituents. In particular, the applications of solid-state electrolytes in IMT Na-S and RT Na-S chemistry are emphasised. The remaining challenges and clear perspectives are outlined for the future development of novel high-performance Na-S batteries.

UOW Authors


  •   Wang, Guoxiu (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2020

Citation


  • Wang, Y., Zhou, D., Palomares, V., Shanmukaraj, D., Sun, B., Tang, X., . . . Wang, G. (2020). Revitalising sodium-sulfur batteries for non-high-temperature operation: A crucial review. Energy and Environmental Science, 13(11), 3848-3879. doi:10.1039/d0ee02203a

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85097491320

Start Page


  • 3848

End Page


  • 3879

Volume


  • 13

Issue


  • 11