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An investigation of dose changes for therapeutic kilovoltage x-ray beams with underlying lead shielding

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Kilovoltage x-ray beams are used to treat cancer on or close to the skin surface. Many clinical cases use high atomic number materials as shielding to reduce dose to underlying healthy tissues. In this work, we have investigated the effect on both the surface dose and depth doses in a water phantom with lead shielding at depth in the phantom. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the water phantom and to calculate the surface doses and depth doses using primary x-ray beam spectra derived from an analytical model. The x-ray beams were in the energy range of 75- 135 kVp with field sizes of 2, 5 and 8 cm diameter. The lead sheet was located beneath the water surface at depths ranging from 0.5- 7.5 cm. The surface dose decreased as the lead was positioned closer to the water surface and as the field size was increased. The variation in surface dose as a function of x-ray beam energy was only small but the maximum reduction occurred for the 100 kVp x-ray beam. For the 8 cm diameter field with the lead at 1 cm depth and using the 100 kVp x-ray beam, the surface dose was reduced to 0.898 of the surface dose in the water phantom only. Measured surface dose changes, using a Farmer-type ionization chamber, agreed with the Monte Carlo calculated doses. Calculated depth doses in water with a lead sheet positioned below the surface showed that the dose fall-off increased as the lead was positioned closer to the water surface as compared to the depth dose in the water phantom only. Monte Carlo calculations of the total x-ray beam spectrum at the water surface showed that the total fluence decreased due to a reduction in backscatter from within the water and very little backscatter from the lead. The mean energy of the x-ray spectrum varied less than 1 keV, with the lead at 1 cm beneath the water phantom surface. As the Monte Carlo calculations showed good agreement with the measured results, this method can be used to verify surface dose changes in clinical situations where measurements are difficult. The clinical impact of the use of lead must be considered in the dose prescription for patients being treated with kilovoltage x-ray beams. © 2007 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

UOW Authors


  •   Baldock, Clive (external author)
  •   Holloway, Lois (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2007

Citation


  • Hill, R., Healy, B., Holloway, L., & Baldock, C. (2007). An investigation of dose changes for therapeutic kilovoltage x-ray beams with underlying lead shielding. Medical Physics, 34(7), 3045-3053. doi:10.1118/1.2748103

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-34347370459

Start Page


  • 3045

End Page


  • 3053

Volume


  • 34

Issue


  • 7

Abstract


  • Kilovoltage x-ray beams are used to treat cancer on or close to the skin surface. Many clinical cases use high atomic number materials as shielding to reduce dose to underlying healthy tissues. In this work, we have investigated the effect on both the surface dose and depth doses in a water phantom with lead shielding at depth in the phantom. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the water phantom and to calculate the surface doses and depth doses using primary x-ray beam spectra derived from an analytical model. The x-ray beams were in the energy range of 75- 135 kVp with field sizes of 2, 5 and 8 cm diameter. The lead sheet was located beneath the water surface at depths ranging from 0.5- 7.5 cm. The surface dose decreased as the lead was positioned closer to the water surface and as the field size was increased. The variation in surface dose as a function of x-ray beam energy was only small but the maximum reduction occurred for the 100 kVp x-ray beam. For the 8 cm diameter field with the lead at 1 cm depth and using the 100 kVp x-ray beam, the surface dose was reduced to 0.898 of the surface dose in the water phantom only. Measured surface dose changes, using a Farmer-type ionization chamber, agreed with the Monte Carlo calculated doses. Calculated depth doses in water with a lead sheet positioned below the surface showed that the dose fall-off increased as the lead was positioned closer to the water surface as compared to the depth dose in the water phantom only. Monte Carlo calculations of the total x-ray beam spectrum at the water surface showed that the total fluence decreased due to a reduction in backscatter from within the water and very little backscatter from the lead. The mean energy of the x-ray spectrum varied less than 1 keV, with the lead at 1 cm beneath the water phantom surface. As the Monte Carlo calculations showed good agreement with the measured results, this method can be used to verify surface dose changes in clinical situations where measurements are difficult. The clinical impact of the use of lead must be considered in the dose prescription for patients being treated with kilovoltage x-ray beams. © 2007 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

UOW Authors


  •   Baldock, Clive (external author)
  •   Holloway, Lois (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2007

Citation


  • Hill, R., Healy, B., Holloway, L., & Baldock, C. (2007). An investigation of dose changes for therapeutic kilovoltage x-ray beams with underlying lead shielding. Medical Physics, 34(7), 3045-3053. doi:10.1118/1.2748103

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-34347370459

Start Page


  • 3045

End Page


  • 3053

Volume


  • 34

Issue


  • 7