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Evolution of the early devonian bindook volcanic complex, wollondilly basin, eastern lachlan fold belt

Journal Article


Abstract


  • The Early Devonian Bindook Volcanic Complex consists of a thick silicic volcanic and associated sedimentary succession filling the extensional Wollondilly Basin in the northeastern Lachlan Fold Belt. The basal part of the succession (Tangerang Formation) is exposed in the central and southeastern Wollondilly Basin where it unconformably overlies Ordovician rocks or conformably overlies the Late Silurian to Early Devonian Bungonia Limestone. Six volcanic members, including three new members, are now recognised in the Tangerang Formation and three major facies have been delineated in the associated sedimentary sequence. The oldest part of the sequence near Windellama consists of a quartz turbidite facies deposited at moderate water depths together with the shallow‐marine shelf Windellama Limestone and Brooklyn Conglomerate Members deposited close to the eastern margin of the basin. Farther north the shelf facies consists of marine shale and sandstone which become progressively more tuffaceous northwards towards Marulan. The Devils Pulpit Member (new unit) is a shallow‐marine volcaniclastic unit marking the first major volcanic eruptions in the region. The overlying shallow‐marine sedimentary facies is tuffaceous in the north, contains a central Ordovician‐derived quartzose (?deltaic) facies and a predominantly mixed facies farther south. The initial volcanism occurred in an undefined area north of Marulan. A period of non‐marine exposure, erosion and later deposition of quartzose rocks marked a considerable break in volcanic activity. Volcanism recommenced with the widespread emplacement of the Kerillon Tuff Member (new unit), a thick, non‐welded rhyolitic ignimbrite followed by dacitic welded ignimbrite and air‐fall tuff produced by a large magnitude eruption leading to caldera collapse in the central part of the Bindook Volcanic Complex, together with an additional small eruptive centre near Lumley Park. The overlying Kerrawarra Dacite Member (new unit) is lava‐like in character but it also has the dimensions of an ignimbrite and covers a large part of the central Bindook Volcanic Complex. The Carne Dacite Member is interpreted as a series of subvolcanic intrusions including laccoliths, cryptodomes and sills. The Tangerang Formation is overlain by the extensive crystal‐rich Joaramin Ignimbrite (new unit) that was erupted from an undefined centre in the central or northern Bindook Volcanic Complex. The volcanic units at Wombeyan and the Kowmung Volcaniclastics in the northwestern part of the complex are probably lateral time‐equivalents of the Tangerang Formation and Joaramin Ignimbrite. All three successions pre‐date the major subaerial volcanic plateau‐forming eruptions represented by the Barrallier Ignimbrite (new unit). The latter post‐dated folding and an extensive erosional phase, and unconformably overlies many of the older units in the Bindook Volcanic Complex. This ignimbrite was probably erupted from a large caldera in the northern part of the complex and probably represents surface expressions of part of the intruding Marulan Batholith. The final volcanic episode is represented by the volcanic units at Yerranderie which formed around a crater at the northern end of the exposed Bindook Volcanic Complex. © 1997 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

UOW Authors


Publication Date


  • 1997

Citation


  • Simpson, C. J., Carr, P. F., & Jones, B. G. (1997). Evolution of the early devonian bindook volcanic complex, wollondilly basin, eastern lachlan fold belt. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 44(6), 711-726. doi:10.1080/08120099708728349

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-0031448654

Start Page


  • 711

End Page


  • 726

Volume


  • 44

Issue


  • 6

Abstract


  • The Early Devonian Bindook Volcanic Complex consists of a thick silicic volcanic and associated sedimentary succession filling the extensional Wollondilly Basin in the northeastern Lachlan Fold Belt. The basal part of the succession (Tangerang Formation) is exposed in the central and southeastern Wollondilly Basin where it unconformably overlies Ordovician rocks or conformably overlies the Late Silurian to Early Devonian Bungonia Limestone. Six volcanic members, including three new members, are now recognised in the Tangerang Formation and three major facies have been delineated in the associated sedimentary sequence. The oldest part of the sequence near Windellama consists of a quartz turbidite facies deposited at moderate water depths together with the shallow‐marine shelf Windellama Limestone and Brooklyn Conglomerate Members deposited close to the eastern margin of the basin. Farther north the shelf facies consists of marine shale and sandstone which become progressively more tuffaceous northwards towards Marulan. The Devils Pulpit Member (new unit) is a shallow‐marine volcaniclastic unit marking the first major volcanic eruptions in the region. The overlying shallow‐marine sedimentary facies is tuffaceous in the north, contains a central Ordovician‐derived quartzose (?deltaic) facies and a predominantly mixed facies farther south. The initial volcanism occurred in an undefined area north of Marulan. A period of non‐marine exposure, erosion and later deposition of quartzose rocks marked a considerable break in volcanic activity. Volcanism recommenced with the widespread emplacement of the Kerillon Tuff Member (new unit), a thick, non‐welded rhyolitic ignimbrite followed by dacitic welded ignimbrite and air‐fall tuff produced by a large magnitude eruption leading to caldera collapse in the central part of the Bindook Volcanic Complex, together with an additional small eruptive centre near Lumley Park. The overlying Kerrawarra Dacite Member (new unit) is lava‐like in character but it also has the dimensions of an ignimbrite and covers a large part of the central Bindook Volcanic Complex. The Carne Dacite Member is interpreted as a series of subvolcanic intrusions including laccoliths, cryptodomes and sills. The Tangerang Formation is overlain by the extensive crystal‐rich Joaramin Ignimbrite (new unit) that was erupted from an undefined centre in the central or northern Bindook Volcanic Complex. The volcanic units at Wombeyan and the Kowmung Volcaniclastics in the northwestern part of the complex are probably lateral time‐equivalents of the Tangerang Formation and Joaramin Ignimbrite. All three successions pre‐date the major subaerial volcanic plateau‐forming eruptions represented by the Barrallier Ignimbrite (new unit). The latter post‐dated folding and an extensive erosional phase, and unconformably overlies many of the older units in the Bindook Volcanic Complex. This ignimbrite was probably erupted from a large caldera in the northern part of the complex and probably represents surface expressions of part of the intruding Marulan Batholith. The final volcanic episode is represented by the volcanic units at Yerranderie which formed around a crater at the northern end of the exposed Bindook Volcanic Complex. © 1997 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

UOW Authors


Publication Date


  • 1997

Citation


  • Simpson, C. J., Carr, P. F., & Jones, B. G. (1997). Evolution of the early devonian bindook volcanic complex, wollondilly basin, eastern lachlan fold belt. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 44(6), 711-726. doi:10.1080/08120099708728349

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-0031448654

Start Page


  • 711

End Page


  • 726

Volume


  • 44

Issue


  • 6