Migraine is a common complex neurological disorder with a well-known but poorly characterized genetic liability. The search for migraine susceptibility genes has been the focus of intense research. It is now believed that common migraine is not a single gene disorder, but attributable to several potentially interacting genetic variants. These variants may differ in each sufferer and interact with environmental factors to set the individual migraine threshold. This genetic liability may play an important role in the clinical heterogeneity seen in migraine and also in the variability of treatment response. This review will look at genetic loci implicated in migraine to date and consider their current or prospective role in migraine therapy. To elucidate the complex nature of migraine genetic liability, approaches that consider detailed endophenotypic profiles that encompass treatment response may provide much more relevant information than simple end diagnosis. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.