Cancer cells produce galectin-1 as a tumor promoting protein. Thiodigalactoside (TDG) as a non-metabolised small drug, is shown to suppress tumor growth by inhibiting multiple cancer enhancing activities of galectin-1, including immune cell dysregulation, angiogenesis and protection against oxidative stress. Thus, using B16F10 melanoma and 4T1 orthotopic breast cancer models, intratumoral injection of TDG significantly raised the levels of tumor-infiltrating CD8 + lymphocytes and reduced CD31 + endothelial cell content, reducing tumor growth. TDG treatment of tumors in Balb/c nude mice (defective in T cell immunity) reduced angiogenesis and slowed tumor growth by a third less than in immunocompetent mice. Knocking down galectin-1 expression (G1KD) in both cancer cell types significantly impeded tumor growth and the sensitivity of the G1KD tumors to TDG was severely reduced, highlighting a specific role for galectin-1. Endothelial cells were protected by galectin-1 from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis induced by H 2O 2, but TDG inhibited this antioxidant protective effect of galectin-1 and reduced tube forming activity in angiogenic assays. We show for the first time that the single agent, TDG, concurrently prevents many tumor promoting effects of galectin-1 on angiogenesis, immune dysregulation and protection against oxidative stress, providing a potent and novel small molecule as an anti-cancer drug. © 2011 The Author(s).