The purpose of health promotion a increasing health a may seem superficially morally good, but the goals and activities of health promotion practice require careful ethical assessment. Strategies including segmenting, targeting, nudging, persuading, and empowering can be pursued in justifiable or unjustifiable ways. Health promotion can have ethically problematic consequences, including increasing disparities, worsening stigmatization, and denying valued practices. Ethical reasoning can support the legitimacy of health promotion, particularly as a responsibility of states towardÂtheir citizens. Attending to the ethical dimensions of health promotion can help practitioners weigh up goals and strategiesÂ and make justified and reasoned choices between them.