Suggestive evidence for a potential susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at 5q31 was obtained in two family samples. Sample I consisted of 14 families with schizophrenia and revealed for the marker IL9 a lod score of 1.8 by two point lod score analysis. Sample II comprised 44 families including four from sample I and was ascertained in order to employ affected sib-pair analysis by identity by descent. A lod score of 1.8 around the marker D5S399 was obtained by multipoint analysis. The lod score remained positive, but decreased to 1.27 when the four families from sample I were excluded in order to use sample II as a statistically independent replication sample. We propose a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia with probably minor contribution in the pedigrees under investigation.