Genetic variants in a gene on 6p22.3, dysbindin, have been shown recently to be associated with schizophrenia (Straub et al. 2002a). There is no doubt that replication in other independent samples would enhance the significance of this finding considerably. Since the gene is located in the center of the linkage peak on chromosome 6p that we reported earlier, we decided to test six of the most positive DNA polymorphisms in a sib-pair sample and in an independently ascertained sample of triads comprising 203 families, including the families for which we detected linkage on chromosome 6p. Evidence for association was observed in the two samples separately as well as in the combined sample (P = .00068 for SNP rs760761). Multilocus haplotype analysis increased the significance further to .00002 for a two-locus haplotype and to .00001 for a three-locus haplotype. Estimation of frequencies for six-locus haplotypes revealed one common haplotype with a frequency of 73.4% in transmitted, and only 57.6% in nontransmitted, parental haplotypes. All other six-locus haplotypes occurring at a frequency of >1% were less often transmitted than nontransmitted. Our results represent a first successful replication of linkage disequilibrium in psychiatric genetics detected in a region with previous evidence of linkage and will encourage the search for causes of schizophrenia by the genetic approach.