This study examines mangrove substrate production within a mangrove basin forest in the Tweed Estuary, northern New South Wales, Australia. This is achieved using high resolution dating of 239+240Pu, 236U and 210Pb in mangrove sediments to examine both the modes and rates of mangrove substrate production. Results show a shift in the mode of substrate production occurred approximately 70 years ago in response to human modification of the Tweed Estuary (hydrologic changes). At that time, mangrove substrate production shifted from being dominated by sedimentation processes (fine silt accumulation) to being dominated by biological processes (mangrove root production). Since that time, mangrove peat has been accreting at the study site at the same rate as local sea level rise (SLR), implying current rates of peat substrate development are tuned to increasing sea level. A further implication of the shift to biological accretion at rates corresponding with SLR is that the studied mangrove basin is sequestering C at increasing rates due to subsurface root production.