A new brachiopod fauna is described from the lower Itaituba Formation at the Caima Quarry 2 section in the Itaituba area, Amazon Basin, Brazil. The Amazonoproductus amazonensis-Anthracospirifer oliveirai Assemblage is proposed for this fauna, which is considered early Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) as constrained by associated conodont and fusulinacean faunas. Nine brachiopod taxa are described herein, including Amazonoproductus amazonensis gen. et sp. nov., and Buxtonioides itaitubensis sp. nov. and Linoproductus caima sp. nov. The new tribe Marginovatini of the Linoproductoidea (the Productida) is also proposed. © 2004 Association of Australasian Palaeontologists.