Fourty-three species (including six indeterminate species) belonging to 30 genera of producitid brachiopods are described from the Artinskian-Kungurian sequences of the Tarim Basin, southern Xinjiang Province, Northwest China. Seven brachiopod zones are established for the Lower Permian faunas of the basin, including (in ascending order): Bruntonella tenuireticulatus, Hystriculina sinica, Orbicoelia magna, Liraplecta richthofeni, Chianella chianensis, Tarimathyris postambigua, and Liraplecta aspera Zones. Correlations of the Tarim brachiopod zones with faunas from South China, Thailand, Central Asia, northern Tibet, Karakorum, Urals, and Russian Platform, reinforced by some data from the associated fusulinids and conodonts, suggest that the first two zones are indicative of an early Artinskian age, the Orbicoelia magna and Liraplecta richthofeni Zones are middle to late Artinskian and latest Artinskian, respectively, the Chianella chianensis, Tarimathyris postambigua, and Liraplecta aspera Zones are early Kungurian, late Kungurian, and latest Kungurian, respectively. One new genus, Bruntonella, and two new subgenera, Marginifera (Arenaria) and Marginifera (Nesiotia), are proposed. New species include Dyschrestia takelamaganensis n.sp., Marginifera (Arenaria) yinjishaensis n.sp., Chaoiella ustritskyi n.sp., Coolkilella pseudovilliersi n.sp. and Cancrinella quadrata n.sp. © 2006 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.