By use of low-temperature confocal microscopy, continuous-wave two-photon fluorescence images are obtained of individual CdS nanocrystallites embedded in a polymer matrix. The quadratic dependence of the emission rate on the applied laser power proves that the observed fluorescence originates from the simultaneous absorption of two photons. From the experimental data the two-photon absorption cross-section σ(2) could be determined, resulting in a value smaller than that known from literature. The work presented is a first step towards high-resolution fluorescence-excitation spectroscopy on the electronic states in the band edge, inaccessible by conventional one-photon spectroscopy. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.