ObjectiveTo review the results of any published research study examining the psychosocial functioning of children who have recently completed cancer treatment.MethodsFive electronic databases were searched (from 1978 to 2008). Of 1,734 identified articles, 19 met all inclusion criteria. Four articles utilized a qualitative methodology, thirteen utilized a quantitative methodology, and two used mixed methods. ResultsChildren may experience positive psychosocial outcomes on treatment completion, including high self-worth, good behavioral conduct, and improved mental health and social behavior. However, they may also experience significant negative outcomes, including lower levels of psychological well-being, mood, liveliness, self-esteem, and motor and physical functioning, as well as increased anxiety, problem behaviors, and sleeping difficulties.ConclusionsCompleting treatment can be a psychologically complex time for children as they wait to make the transition from "cancer patient" to long-term "cancer survivor." Further high-quality research targeting the needs of these children is warranted. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved.