This paper addresses the co-design problem of a fault detection filter and controller for a networked-based unmanned surface vehicle (USV) system subject to communication delays, external disturbance, faults, and aperiodic denial-of-service (DoS) jamming attacks. First, an event-triggering communication scheme is proposed to enhance the efficiency of network resource utilization while counteracting the impact of aperiodic DoS attacks on the USV control system performance. Second, an event-based switched USV control system is presented to account for the simultaneous presence of communication delays, disturbance, faults, and DoS jamming attacks. Third, by using the piecewise Lyapunov functional (PLF) approach, criteria for exponential stability analysis and co-design of a desired observer-based fault detection filter and an event-triggered controller are derived and expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, the simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed co-design method. The results show that this method not only ensures the safe and stable operation of the USV but also reduces the amount of data transmissions.