Choanoflagellates, unicellular organisms that are closely related to metazoans, possess cell adhesion and signaling proteins previously thought to be unique to animals, suggesting that these components may have played roles in the evolution of metazoan multicellularity. We have cloned, expressed, and purified the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase MbSrc1 from the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. The kinase has the same domain arrangement as mammalian Src kinases, and we find that the individual Src homology 3 (SH3), SH2, and catalytic domains have similar functions to their mammalian counterparts. In contrast to mammalian c-Src, the SH2 and catalytic domains of MbSrc1 do not appear to be functionally coupled. We cloned and expressed the M. brevicollis homolog of c-Src C-terminal kinase (MbCsk) and showed that it phosphorylates the C terminus of MbSrc1, yet this phosphorylation does not inhibit MbSrc to the same degree seen in the mammalian Src/ Csk pair. Thus, Src autoinhibition likely evolved more recently within the metazoan lineage, and it may have played a role in the establishment of intercellular signaling in metazoans. �� 2008 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.