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Permeability, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of Cr(III) complexes and some Cr(V) analogues in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells.

Journal Article


Abstract


  • The permeabilities and genotoxicities of the Cr(III) complexes [Cr(en)(3)](3+), mer-[Cr(glygly)(2)](-), cis-[Cr(phen)(2)(OH(2))(2)](3+), and trans-[Cr(salen)(OH(2))(2)](+) and the Cr(V) analogues of cis-[Cr(phen)(2)(OH(2))(2)](3+) and trans-[Cr(salen)(OH(2))(2)](+) [en being 1,2-ethanediamine, glygly being glycylglycine, phen being 1,10-phenanthroline, and salen being N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminato)] have been studied in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells. Following exposure of approximately 10(6) cells to 0.4 mM Cr(III) for 4 h, the Cr uptake by single cells was less than 10(-)(14) g/cell (as determined by GFAAS analysis and as confirmed by PIXE analysis where the Cr concentration was below the limit of detection). Importantly, the Cr(V) analogue of cis-[Cr(phen)(2)(OH(2))(2)] was significantly more permeable than the Cr(III) complex. The cytotoxicity of the Cr(III) complexes increased in the following order: mer-[Cr(glygly)(2)](-) < [Cr(en)(3)](3+) approximately cis-[Cr(phen)(2)(OH(2))(2)](3+) < trans-[Cr(salen)(OH(2))(2)](+). No genotoxic effects were observed following exposure to mer-[Cr(glygly)(2)](-) or [Cr(en)(3)](3+) at concentrations up to 6 mM. The Cr(III) imine complexes trans-[Cr(salen)(OH(2))(2)](+) and cis-[Cr(phen)(2)(OH(2))(2)](3+), which could be oxidized to Cr(V) complexes, induced MN in vitro at rates of 13.6 and 3.3 MN/1000 BN cells/micromol of Cr, respectively. The comparative permeabilities and genotoxicities of trans-[Cr(salen)(OH(2))(2)](+) and [CrO(salen)](+) were similar due to the instability of the Cr(V) complex at physiological pH values (7.4). There was a substantial increase in the permeability of [Cr(O)(2)(phen)(2)](+), compared to that of the Cr(III) analogue, which was accompanied by a highly genotoxic response. Consequently, any Cr(III) complex that is absorbed by cells and can be oxidized to Cr(V) must be considered as a potential carcinogen. This has potential implications for the increased use of Cr(III) complexes as dietary supplements and highlights the need to consider the genotoxicities of a variety of Cr(III) complexes when determining the carcinogenic potential of Cr(III) particularly when "high" deliberately administered doses are concerned.

Publication Date


  • 2000

Citation


  • Dillon, C. T., Lay, P. A., Bonin, A. M., Cholewa, M., & Legge, G. J. (2000). Permeability, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of Cr(III) complexes and some Cr(V) analogues in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells.. Chemical research in toxicology, 13(8), 742-748. doi:10.1021/tx0000116

Web Of Science Accession Number


Start Page


  • 742

End Page


  • 748

Volume


  • 13

Issue


  • 8

Abstract


  • The permeabilities and genotoxicities of the Cr(III) complexes [Cr(en)(3)](3+), mer-[Cr(glygly)(2)](-), cis-[Cr(phen)(2)(OH(2))(2)](3+), and trans-[Cr(salen)(OH(2))(2)](+) and the Cr(V) analogues of cis-[Cr(phen)(2)(OH(2))(2)](3+) and trans-[Cr(salen)(OH(2))(2)](+) [en being 1,2-ethanediamine, glygly being glycylglycine, phen being 1,10-phenanthroline, and salen being N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminato)] have been studied in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells. Following exposure of approximately 10(6) cells to 0.4 mM Cr(III) for 4 h, the Cr uptake by single cells was less than 10(-)(14) g/cell (as determined by GFAAS analysis and as confirmed by PIXE analysis where the Cr concentration was below the limit of detection). Importantly, the Cr(V) analogue of cis-[Cr(phen)(2)(OH(2))(2)] was significantly more permeable than the Cr(III) complex. The cytotoxicity of the Cr(III) complexes increased in the following order: mer-[Cr(glygly)(2)](-) < [Cr(en)(3)](3+) approximately cis-[Cr(phen)(2)(OH(2))(2)](3+) < trans-[Cr(salen)(OH(2))(2)](+). No genotoxic effects were observed following exposure to mer-[Cr(glygly)(2)](-) or [Cr(en)(3)](3+) at concentrations up to 6 mM. The Cr(III) imine complexes trans-[Cr(salen)(OH(2))(2)](+) and cis-[Cr(phen)(2)(OH(2))(2)](3+), which could be oxidized to Cr(V) complexes, induced MN in vitro at rates of 13.6 and 3.3 MN/1000 BN cells/micromol of Cr, respectively. The comparative permeabilities and genotoxicities of trans-[Cr(salen)(OH(2))(2)](+) and [CrO(salen)](+) were similar due to the instability of the Cr(V) complex at physiological pH values (7.4). There was a substantial increase in the permeability of [Cr(O)(2)(phen)(2)](+), compared to that of the Cr(III) analogue, which was accompanied by a highly genotoxic response. Consequently, any Cr(III) complex that is absorbed by cells and can be oxidized to Cr(V) must be considered as a potential carcinogen. This has potential implications for the increased use of Cr(III) complexes as dietary supplements and highlights the need to consider the genotoxicities of a variety of Cr(III) complexes when determining the carcinogenic potential of Cr(III) particularly when "high" deliberately administered doses are concerned.

Publication Date


  • 2000

Citation


  • Dillon, C. T., Lay, P. A., Bonin, A. M., Cholewa, M., & Legge, G. J. (2000). Permeability, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of Cr(III) complexes and some Cr(V) analogues in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells.. Chemical research in toxicology, 13(8), 742-748. doi:10.1021/tx0000116

Web Of Science Accession Number


Start Page


  • 742

End Page


  • 748

Volume


  • 13

Issue


  • 8